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Terms Commonly Used in Conversation

2 x 4: A truck with two axles, one of which is driven.
4 x 6: A truck with three axles, two of which are driven.
4-Wheeler: Most all four-wheel non-commercial vehicles.
Ace: A driver with a Class A CDL.
Air Ride: A suspension system that uses air bags for springs.
A-Train: Same as Rocky Mountain Double.
Auto Tarp: A tarp commonly used on dump trucks that is automatically unrolled but usually does a very poor job covering and containing loads.
Axle Group: Any set of axles that are less than 10 feet apart.
Barn Door: A trailer door that swings to the side.
Belly Dump: A dump trailer that releases material from the bottom rather than the end.
Binders: Same as Load Binders.
Blind Back: Backing a trailer to the right.
Blocking: A device placed around the base of a piece of cargo to prevent it from sliding. Commonly, wood blocks nailed to the floor of a trailer.
Blowin' the Brakes: Releasing air from the Spring Brakes to park a truck.
Bobtail: A Truck-Tractor with no trailer.
Book Miles: Same as Map Miles.
Boomers: Same as Load Binders.
Booster Axle: An axle that can be lifted off the ground when the truck is unloaded and put down when loaded.
Bottom Dump: Same as Belly Dump.
Bouncing: Same as Dead Heading.
Bracing: A device placed against a piece of cargo to prevent it from tipping.
Brake Adjustment: The measurement of how close the brake linings are to the brake drum.
Brake Chamber: An air-operated actuator that converts air pressure in an air brake system into mechanical force that applies the Foundation Brake.
Bridge Law: The part of the weight regulations that dictates the axle separation distance needed to haul a given amount of weight. For example, a typical five-axle Truck-Tractor Semi-Trailer can haul 80,000 lbs max but, in order to do this without damaging bridges, the first and last axles must be at least 51 feet apart.
B-Train: Same as Doubles.
Bud Wheel: Same as Disc Wheel.
Bulkhead: Same as Header Board. May also refer to the dividers inside of a liquid tanker.
Bulldog: A Mack truck.
Bunk: Same as Sleeper Birth.
Button Hook Turn: A method of right-turning a Truck-Tractor Semi-Trailer in order to avoid Curbing the trailer tires. This method creates a path that looks like a button hook and is considered the proper way to turn right.
Cab Over Tractor: A tractor with the cab above the engine allowing longer trailers to be pulled due to its shorter wheel-base. Used commonly in the 70's and 80's, but rarely seen today. Its harsh ride, small poorly-configured Sleeper Births, and high probability of injuries from getting in and out of the cab have made it obsolete.
California Combination: A 10-Wheeled straight truck pulling a 2-axle Full Trailer.
Cast Spoke Wheel: A wheel system consisting of a steel rim with no center, which is mounted to a cast iron center or spoke using rim clamps.
CDL: Commercial Driver's License required to drive a truck over 26,000 lbs or pull a trailer over 10,000 lbs.
CFR: Code of Federal Regulations. The sections of the CFR applicable to trucking are contained in CFR 49 and are collectively known as the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations.
Cheater Axle: Same as Booster Axle.
Class-A CDL: A Commercial Drivers License that allows a person to operate a truck pulling a trailer with a GVWR over 10,000 lbs.
Class-B CDL: A Commercial Drivers License that allows a person to operate a truck with a GVWR over 26,000 lbs.
Coal Bucket: A dump trailer used for hauling coal.
Com Card: Same as Fuel Card.
Com Check: A pre-authorized check that is typically used to pay truck-related expenses and driver cash advances.
Company Brakes: When an Owner-Operator regularly uses his Hand Valve to slow down using the brakes on a trailer owned by "the company" thereby, prolonging the life of his brakes on the tractor.
Condo: Usually an Integrated Sleeper Birth that is very tall inside due to the faring also being an integral part of the birth.
Conspicuity Tape: The CFR required retro-reflective sheeting placed on the sides and rear of a Semi-Trailer to make it visible at night.
Container: A steel box used for Intermodal Shipments.
Container Chassis: A Semi-Trailer that is designed to haul a Container.
Control Speed: The recommended speed for descending a grade where a truck maintains a relatively steady speed with minimal use of the brakes.
Conventional Tractor: A Truck-Tractor that has the cab behind the engine and a long hood covering the engine.
Converter Dolly: A device placed under a Semi-Trailer to convert it to a Full-Trailer.
Cowboy: A reckless law-breaking truck driver.
Crabbing: Same as Thrust Angle Misalignment.
Curbing: Running a trailer's tires up on a curb usually causing damage to the tire's sidewall.
Dash Valve: The valves on the truck's dashboard used to apply and release the Park/Emergency Brakes.
Day Cab: A Truck-Tractor that as no Sleeper Birth.
Dayton Wheel: Same as Cast Spoke Wheel.
Dead Heading: Driving an empty truck.
Dedicated Equipment: A Truck-Tractor Semi-Trailer that always stays connected.
Demountable Rim: A wheel that has multiple pieces.
Disc Wheel: A single piece drop-center wheel that mounts to a truck in the same manner as a passenger car wheel.
Dock Bar: Same as Rear Impact Guard.
Dog Tracking: Same as Thrust Angle Misalignment.
DOT Annual: A Preventive Maintenance Inspection (PMI) that is required by the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) and must be done at least once every 12 months.
DOT Bar: Same as Rear Impact Guard.
Double Clutching: A method for shifting a non-synchronized manual transmission. Double clutching is done by pressing the clutch pedal partially to the floor, shifting to neutral, releasing the pedal, pressing the clutch pedal partially to the floor again, and shifting into a higher gear.
Double Eagle: A large Sleeper Birth that typically has a bathroom and kitchen.
Doubles: A Truck-Tractor with two 28-foot trailers.
Drifting: Coasting downhill in gear.
Drive-Away Tow-Away: An operation where the item being delivered is being driven or towed like a mobile home.
Drop Deck: A flatbed Semi-Trailer that has a lower midsection used for hauling tall items.
Drop-n-Hook: When a driver picks up a loaded Semi-Trailer and delivers it without having to wait for it to be loaded and unloaded.
Dunnage: Bulky loose items such as cardboard and airbags placed around freight to keep it from moving.
Driver or Daily Vehicle Inspection Report: An inspection required by the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) that must be done in writing by a driver at the end of the day.
DVIR: Same as Driver or Daily Vehicle Inspection Report.
Elevating Fifth Wheel: A Fifth Wheel used on Yard Tractors that can lift a Semi-Trailer off its Landing Gear so it can be moved without the driver getting out and cranking up the Landing Gear.
End Dump: A dump truck that dumps out the rear, usually refers to a Truck-Tractor pulling an End Dump Semi-Trailer.
Engine Brake: A Retarder that increases engine drag while Drifting by changing the engine's valve timing.
Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations: The parts of CFR 49 that are applicable to trucks.
Fifth Wheel: The hitch used to connect a Semi-Trailer to a Truck-Tractor.
Fisheye Mirror: A convex wider angle mirror.
Flip-Flop: A return trip or also a U-turn.
Float Shifting: Shifting gears without using the clutch.
Foot Valve: The brake pedal.
Forced Dispatch: When a driver has no say in the loads he is assigned. Often refers to drivers being forced to take shipments when they do not have sufficient hours to make the delivery legally.
Foundation Brake: The mechanical components of the brake system found at each wheel end.
Freightshaker: A freightliner truck.
Fuel Bonus: A bonus payment to a driver for meeting a specified fuel mileage.
Fuel Card: A fleet managed "credit card" used by drivers to purchase fuel and pay other truck-related expenses. These cards can also be used by a driver at truck stops to receive cash from payroll, advances, or per-diems.
Full Trailer: A trailer that is supported at both ends by its own axles and pulled by a draw bar.
Gator: Pieces of a failed tire lying in the road.
Georgia Overdrive: Coasting out of gear going downhill.
Glad Hand: The devices used to connect and disconnect airlines to a trailer.
Goat: Same as Yard Tractor.
Gooseneck: A Semi-Trailer with a detachable neck. With the neck removed, the front of the trailer sits on the ground allowing tracked and wheeled equipment to be driven onto it.
Gross Axle Weight Rating (GAWR): The maximum weight that can be carried on an axle.
Gross Combined Weight Rating (GCWR): The maximum weight that can be carried by a combination vehicle.
Gross Vehicle Weight Rating (GVWR): The maximum weight that can be carried by a vehicle.
Gypsy: Same as Owner-Operator.
Hammer Lane: The left or passing lane of a highway.
Hand Valve: A lever on the right of the steering wheel that is used to apply only the brakes on a Semi-Trailer.
Headache Rack: Same as Header Board.
Header Board: A device behind a truck's cab that prevents freight from entering the cab if it shifts forward.
Hot Shot: A driver who makes short expeditious deliveries of items such as building materials.
Hub Miles: When a driver is paid based on the number of miles registered on the Hubometer.
Hubometer: A device attached to an axle hub that measures mileage.
I.D. Lights: Three lights usually located on the top of the cab and rear of the trailer between the clearance lines that indicate the truck is wider than 80 inches.
ICC Bar: Same as Rear Impact Guard.
Independent Trucker: Same as Owner-Operator.
Integrated Sleeper Birth: When the truck's cab and Sleeper Birth are one piece with no wall separating them.
Intermodal Shipments: Shipments in Containers that can be moved by ship, truck, or rail.
Jackknife: When a Truck-Tractor rotates or yaws around the trailer King Pin during hard braking or extreme maneuvering.
Jug Handle Turn: A method for right turning a Tractor-Trailer Semi-Trailer. This method involves steering left before turning right creating a path that looks like a jug handle. A jug handle turn is considered improper and the Button Hook Turn is preferred.
Johnson Bar: Same as Hand Valve.
Johnson Stick: Same as Hand Valve.
Just-in-Time: When freight is delivered to a manufacturing plant when it is needed to prevent the need to warehouse parts.
King Pin (Trailer): The pin on a Semi-Trailer that engages the Fifth Wheel.
King Pin (Truck): The pin that a truck's steering tires pivot on.
KW: A Kenworth truck.
K-Whopper : A Kenworth truck.
Landing Gear: The jacks on the front of a Semi-Trailer that are used to support it when it is not attached to a Truck-Tractor.
Less Than a Truck Load: When a trailer shipment contains freight from more than one customer.
Line-Haul Driver: A driver that repeatedly drives to the same destination and back to the terminal.
Live Axle: An axle that is driven by the engine.
Load Binder: A device used to tighten straps and chains used to secure a load.
Load Lock: An expandable bar placed between the walls of a van trailer to brace freight.
Loaded Miles: When a driver is paid base on the number of miles he drives while loaded.
Local Driver: A driver that stays within a 100-mile radius of his home terminal.
Lowboy: Same as Drop Deck.
Low-pressure Warning: A light and buzzer that turns on when a truck's air pressure is less than one half the governor cutout (maximum) pressure.
LTL: Same as Less Than A Truck Load.
Lumper: An independent worker that can be hired to unload freight.
Map Miles: A driver payment based on the reported distance between two places. Distances are based on shortest route not the best or safest route.
Maxi Brake: Same as Spring Brake.
Mule: Same as Yard Tractor.
No Touch: A delivery that does not require a driver to load or unload freight.
Over the Road Driver: A driver that travels long distances.
Overloaded: When a truck's weighs more than its manufacture GVWR.
Oversized Load: A truck that is wider than 8.5 feet, taller than 13.6 feet or longer than 70 feet and must get special permits.
Overweight: When a truck's weight exceeds what is legally allowed.
Owner-Operator: A driver that owns his own truck.
Park / Emergency Brakes: A subsystem of an air-braked truck that applies the Foundation Brakes by a mechanical spring and releases the brakes by using air pressure to compress the spring. This spring is contained in the Spring Brake Chamber.
Payload: The weight of the load or freight.
Peddler: A local driver who makes frequent delivery/pickup stops.
Pete: A Peterbilt truck.
Piggyback: Semi-Trailers designed to ride on rail cars.
Piggyback Pole Trailer: A Pole Trailer that folds up and rests on the back of the Truck-Tractor when empty.
Pigtail: The trailer light wiring and connection on a Truck-Tractor.
Pilot Controls: The in-cab controls used to engage a PTO and operate PTO driven equipment.
Pintle Hook: A coupler used on the drawbar of a Dolly or Full-Trailer.
PMI: Preventive Maintenance Inspection. Scheduled inspection of a truck done by a mechanic.
Pole Trailer: A Semi-Trailer that has a single pole attaching a front and back cradle, commonly used for hauling logs.
Poor Boy: A Peterbilt truck.
Power Divider: A device that locks the differential between two live axles so power is more evenly distributed to the driven tires in slick usually off road conditions.
Pre Pass: A truck-mounted device that communicates with a Weigh-In-Motion system and uses in-cab signals to direct the pre-screened truck into or direct them to bypass a weigh station.
PTI : A Pre-Trip or Post-Trip Inspection. Driver Inspection of a truck required by the CFR.
PTO: A power take off. Commonly a hydraulic pump used to power truck equipment like dump beds and mixer drums.
Pup Trailer: A 28-foot Semi-Trailer.
Push Rod: A threaded rod that is part of the Brake Chamber and connects the Brake Chamber to the Foundation Brake.
Push Rod Stroke: A measurement of the distance moved by the Push Rod during a 90 psi brake application. The maximum movement of the Push Rod is dictated by the CFR. This measurement is often referred to as Brake Adjustment but because this over-stroking can also be caused by excessive deflection, it is not really Brake Adjustment.
Pusher Axle: A Booster Axle mounted in front of the truck's Live Axles.
Qualcomm: An electronic communication and GPS tracking system used in trucks.
Rear Dump: Same as End Dump.
Rear Impact Guard: The required rear bumper on a Truck-Trailer or Semi-Trailer that is intended to but rarely does prevent passenger vehicles from underriding the trailer.
Reefer: A refrigerated Semi-Trailer.
Retarder: A device that increases drag in order to help slow down a truck while Drifting.
Rig: Same as Truck-Tractor Semi-Trailer.
Road Hammer: The accelerator pedal.
Rocky Mountain Double: A Truck-Tractor pulling one full length Semi-Trailer and one pup trailer.
Roll Off: A truck used to move long trash containers.
Rub Rail: The rail around the edge of a Flatbed.
S-Cam: A component of the Foundation Brake that is attached to the Slack Adjuster on one end and the brake shoes on the other. This device rotates when force is applied to the Slack Adjuster and its cam shaped head pushes the brake shoes and lining out against the brake drum.
Safe Speed: Same as Control Speed.
Semi-Trailer: A trailer that is supported on one end by the vehicle towing it.
Service Brakes: A truck's brakes that are activated by pushing on the Foot Valve and are applied by air pressure.
Single Drive: A truck-tractor that has one Live Axle.
Slack Adjuster: A component of the Foundation Brake that is a lever attached to the Brake Chamber's Push Rod on one end and the S-Cam shaft on the other. The Slack Adjuster increases the force of the Brake Chamber and also has a device for controlling Brake Adjustment.
Sleeper Birth: A box mounted behind a truck's cab where a driver can sleep.
Sleeper Team: Same as Team.
Slider: A device that allows the axles on a Semi-Trailer to move forward or backward to help distribute weight or to increase the wheel base for Bridge Law compliance.
Slip Seat: An operation where drivers do not have assigned trucks.
Snub Braking: The recommended method for downhill braking where a driver brakes hard to a speed 5 mph below the Safe Speed, allows the truck to accelerate to the Safe Speed again, and reapplies the brakes. The hard 20 to 30 psi brake application ensure that the brakes are more evenly applied than during light steady applications.
Splitter: A lever on the gear shift used to shift the transmission from low to high range.
Spotter: Same as Yard Tractor.
Spread Axle: Two axles in a group that are spread apart 8 to 10 feet. The Bridge Law only allows two axles that are less than 8 feet apart to haul 34,000 lbs. Spreading them apart 10 feet allows them to haul 40,000 lbs.
Spring Brake Chamber: A Brake Chamber with two chambers where one applies the Foundation Brake by air pressure and releases the Foundation Brake by exhausting air pressure and the second chamber applies the Foundation Brake by the expansion of a coil spring and releases the Foundation Brake by using air pressure to compress the spring.
Squeeze Play: When a truck is right-turning starting too far to the left and allows a car to get pinned between the trailer and the curb.
Straight Truck: A non-articulated truck.
Stringer Axle: A steerable Booster Axle that protrudes 10 feet or more behind a Straight Truck to increase the truck's wheel base in order to comply with the Bridge Law. These are commonly seen on cement mixers.
Super Single: Wide tires that are quickly replacing dual tires.
Tachograph: A mechanical device used to record trip activity.
Tag Axle: A Booster Axle that is behind a truck's Live Axles.
Tare Weight: The weight of a truck without a load.
Team: Two drivers that operate a truck in shifts with one in the sleeper birth while the other is driving.
Telescoping Pole Trailer: A Pole Trailer that can be shortened when unloaded.
Ten Wheeler: A three-axle Straight Truck such as a dump truck.
Tire Thumper: A small bat used to "check" tire air pressure by striking them.
TL: Same as Truck Load.
Trailer Jackknife: When a trailer or Semi-Trailer moves to the left or right of the truck during braking or extreme maneuvering.
Trailer Swing-Out: Same as Trailer Jackknife.
Triples: A Truck-Tractor pulling three 28-foot trailers.
Trolley Valve / Bar: Same as Hand Valve.
Truck Load: When a trailer shipment contains freight from one customer.
Truck-Tractor: The power unit of an articulated truck most commonly called a semi.
Truck-Tractor Semi-Trailer: The proper name for what is commonly called a semi or 18-wheeler.
Thrust Angle Misalignment: A misalignment condition that causes the back of a vehicle to track to the left or right of the front when going straight.
Turn Around: A trip involving driving to a delivery and returning to the terminal.
Turnpike Doubles: A Truck-Tractor pulling two 48- or 53-foot Semi-Trailers.
Twin Screw: A truck with two Live Axles.
Underride Guard: Same as Rear Impact Guard.
Van Trailer: A typical box Semi-Trailer.
Weigh-in-Motion: A device imbedded in the pavement of a highway that can weigh trucks as they pass. Normally used in advance of a scale house for identifying trucks that need to be directed to the scale for a more accurate weight measurement.
West Coast Mirrors: The most common side-view mirror arrangement on a truck that has a rectangular flat mirror on each door with typically an 8-inch Fisheye mounted below.
Widow Wagon: Same as Doubles or Triples.
Wiggle Wagon: Same as Doubles or Triples.
Working Load Limits (WLL): The maximum load that can be applied to a load securement device.
Yard Dog: Same as Yard Tractor.
Yard Stick: Mile markers along the highway.
Yard Tractor: A small Truck-Tractor with an odd shaped cab having only one seat and a door that exits to the back of the cab allowing direct access to air and light hookups without climbing to the ground. These are used for moving Semi-Trailers around shipping yards and warehouses. These tractors are often not "certified" to comply with Federal Safety Standards and therefore cannot be driven outside a gated yard.

CB Slang

Alice or Alice in Wonderland: A driver who is lost and wandering around.
Ankle Biters: Kids playing.
Antler Alley: A deer crossing.
Back Door: The rear truck in a convoy.
Backing Down: Slowing down.
Bambi: A deer.
Band-Aid Buggy: An ambulance.
Bean Popper: A truck driver that uses drugs.
Bear: A highway patrol trooper.
Bear in the Grass: A hidden highway patrol trooper running radar.
Bed Bug: A moving van.
Big Orange: A Schneider truck.
Big Truck: A Truck-Tractor Semi-Trailer.
Black Water: Coffee.
Boardwalk: A rough road.
Boy Scout: A highway patrol trooper.
Brown Paper Bag: An unmarked highway patrol vehicle.
Bull Rack: A cattle truck.
Bumper Sticker: A tailgater.
Bunny Hopper: A driver that is changing lanes erratically.
Buster Brown: A UPS Truck.
Cash Register: A tollbooth.
Cheese Wagon: A school bus.
Chicken Coop: A weigh station.
Chicken Lights: A truck with a bunch of extra lights.
Christmas Tree: A truck with a bunch of extra lights.
City Kitty: A local law enforcement officer.
Coloring Book: A trucker's log.
Comic Book: A trucker's log.
Convoy: Three or more speeding trucks.
County Mounty: A sheriff's deputy.
Cub Scouts: Sheriff's deputies.
Cup of Mud: Coffee.
Diesel Cop: A motor carrier officer.
Donuts: Truck tires.
DOT Bear: A motor carrier officer.
Dragon Fly: An underpowered truck that flies downhill and drags uphill.
Dragon Wagon: A tow truck.
Easy Chair: Any truck between the Front Door and Back Door of a convoy.
Evel Knievel: A law enforcement officer on a motorcycle.
Fake Braker : A two-footed driver.
Fat Load: An overweight truck.
Flag Waver: Highway construction worker.
Front Door: The lead truck in a convoy.
Full Grown: A highway patrol trooper.
G.I. Joe: A military convoy or truck carrying military equipment.
Gator Back: Shredded pieces of a failed truck tire.
Gear Jammer: A speeding truck.
Granny Lane: The right lane or slow lane of the highway.
Greasy Side Up: A vehicle that has rolled over.
Green Stamps: Money.
Half Cheese: A short school bus.
In the Saddle: Any truck between the Front Door and Back Door of a convoy.
Joke Book: A trucker's log.
Kamikaze: A speeding motorcycle.
Keep the Black Stack Smokin': Make good time.
Keep the Shiny Side Up: Drive safely.
Land Yacht: An RV or camper.
Large Car: A truck.
Lettuce: Money.
Little Cheese: A short school bus.
Load of Sticks: A truck hauling lumber.
Local: A call usually for a local driver to provide directions or information.
Local Yokel: A local law enforcement officer.
Makin' Coal: A fast-accelerating or heavily-loaded truck with a lot of black smoke escaping from the exhaust pipe.
Meat Wagon: An ambulance.
Mobile Forrest: A log truck.
Mouth Piece: A lawyer.
Mr. Clean: A law-abiding truck driver.
On the Side: Standing by.
One Way Camper: An ambulance.
Paper Hanger: A law enforcement officer giving speeding tickets.
Parking lot: A truck hauling passenger vehicles.
Pig Pen: A weigh station.
Playing Dead: Standing by.
Polar Bear: A white unmarked highway patrol vehicle.
Pony Express: A U.S. Mail truck.
Put your Foot on the Floor and Let it Roar: Go as fast as you can.
Radio: A CB.
Raking the Leaves: The last truck in a convoy.
Rocking Chair: Any truck between the Front Door and Back Door of a convoy.
Roller Skate: A small car.
Rubber Duck: The lead truck in a convoy.
Salt Shaker: A snow plow.
Sandbox: A dump truck.
Sandwich Lane: The center lane of a three-lane highway.
Schneider Eggs: Construction barrels.
Scrub Brush: A street sweeper.
Shaking the Bushes: The lead truck in a convoy.
Shanty Shaker: A truck pulling a mobile home.
Shoveling Coal: A fast-accelerating or heavily-loaded truck with a lot of black smoke escaping from the exhaust pipe.
Shudders Open and Hammer Down: Wide awake and speeding.
Skateboard: A flat bed trailer.
Smokey: A highway patrol trooper.
Smokey Bear: A highway patrol trooper.
Stage Coach: A touring bus.
Super Trooper: A highway patrol vehicle with large radio antennas.
Swiss Cheese: A white school bus.
Tall Rubber: A truck with 24-inch tires.
The Big Hole: High gear.
The Big Road: The Interstate highway.
The Big Slab: The Interstate highway.
Thermos Bottle: A tanker truck.
Town Clown: A local law enforcement officer.
Travel Agent: A dispatcher.
Tricycle Motors: Kids playing.
VW: A Volvo White-GMC truck.
Zipper: The dashed centerline.

CB 10 Codes

10-1: Receiving poorly
10-2: Receiving well
10-3: Stop transmitting
10-4: OK, message received
10-5: Relay message
10-6: Busy, stand by
10-7: Out of service, leaving air
10-8: In service, subject to call
10-9: Repeat message
10-10: Transmission completed, standing by
10-11: Talking too rapidly
10-12: Visitors present
10-13: Advise Weather/Road conditions
10-16: Make pick up at
10-17: Urgent business
10-18: Anything for us
10-19: Nothing for you, return to base
10-20: My location is
10-21: Call by telephone
10-22: Report in person to
10-23: Stand by
10-24: Completed last assignment
10-25: Can you contact
10-26: Disregard last information
10-27: I am moving to channel
10-28: Identify your station
10-29: Time is up for contact
10-30: Does not conform to FCC rules
10-32: I will give you a radio check
10-34: Trouble at this station
10-35: Confidential information
10-36: Correct time is
10-37: Wrecker needed at
10-38: Ambulance needed at
10-39: Your message delivered
10-41: Please turn to channel
10-42: Traffic accident at
10-43: Traffic tie up at
10-44: I have a message for you
10-45: All units within range please report
10-50: Break channel
10-60: What is next message number
10-62: Unable to copy, use phone
10-63: Net directed to
10-64: Net clear
10-65: Awaiting your next message/assignment
10-67: All units comply
10-70: Fire at
10-71: Proceed with transmission in sequence
10-77: Negative contact
10-81: Reserve hotel room for
10-82: Reserve room for
10-84: My telephone number is
10-85: My address is
10-91: Talk closer to the mike
10-93: Check my frequency on this channel
10-94: Please give me a long count
10-99: Mission completed, all units secure
10-200: Police needed at

CFR 49 General Applicability Definitions

Accident — Means
(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2) of this definition, an occurrence involving a commercial motor vehicle operating on a highway in interstate or intrastate commerce which results in:
(i) A fatality;
(ii) Bodily injury to a person who, as a result of the injury, immediately receives medical treatment away from the scene of the accident; or
(iii) One or more motor vehicles incurring disabling damage as a result of the accident, requiring the motor vehicle(s) to be transported away from the scene by a tow truck or other motor vehicle.
(2) The term accident does not include:
(i) An occurrence involving only boarding and alighting from a stationary motor vehicle; or
(ii) An occurrence involving only the loading or unloading of cargo.
Alcohol Concentration (AC) — Means the concentration of alcohol in a person's blood or breath. When expressed as a percentage it means grams of alcohol per 100 milliliters of blood or grams of alcohol per 210 liters of breath.
Bus — Means any motor vehicle designed, constructed, and or used for the transportation of passengers, including taxicabs.
Business District — Means the territory contiguous to and including a highway when within any 600 feet along such highway there are buildings in use for business or industrial purposes, including but not limited to hotels, banks, or office buildings which occupy at least 300 feet of frontage on one side or 300 feet collectively on both sides of the highway.
Charter Transportation of Passengers — Means transportation, using a bus, of a group of persons who pursuant to a common purpose, under a single contract, at a fixed charge for the motor vehicle, have acquired the exclusive use of the motor vehicle to travel together under an itinerary either specified in advance or modified after having left the place of origin.
Commercial Motor Vehicle — Means any self-propelled or towed motor vehicle used on a highway in interstate commerce to transport passengers or property when the vehicle —
(1) Has a gross vehicle weight rating or gross combination weight rating, or gross vehicle weight or gross combination weight, of 4,536 kg (10,001 pounds) or more, whichever is greater; or
(2) Is designed or used to transport more than 8 passengers (including the driver) for compensation; or
(3) Is designed or used to transport more than 15 passengers, including the driver, and is not used to transport passengers for compensation; or
(4) Is used in transporting material found by the Secretary of Transportation to be hazardous under 49 U.S.C. 5103 and transported in a quantity requiring placarding under regulations prescribed by the Secretary under 49 CFR, subtitle B, chapter I, subchapter C.
Conviction — Means an unvacated adjudication of guilt, or a determination that a person has violated or failed to comply with the law in a court of original jurisdiction or by an authorized administrative tribunal, an unvacated forfeiture of bail or collateral deposited to secure the person's appearance in court, a plea of guilty or nolo contendere accepted by the court, the payment of a fine or court cost, or violation of a condition of release without bail, regardless of whether or not the penalty is rebated, suspended, or probated.
Direct Assistance — Means transportation and other relief services provided by a motor carrier or its driver(s) incident to the immediate restoration of essential services (such as, electricity, medical care, sewer, water, telecommunications, and telecommunication transmissions) or essential supplies (such as, food and fuel). It does not include transportation related to long-term rehabilitation of damaged physical infrastructure or routine commercial deliveries after the initial threat to life and property has passed.
Direct Compensation — Means payment made to the motor carrier by the passengers or a person acting on behalf of the passengers for the transportation services provided, and not included in a total package charge or other assessment for highway transportation services.
Disabling Damage — Means damage which precludes departure of a motor vehicle from the scene of the accident in its usual manner in daylight after simple repairs.
(1) Inclusions. Damage to motor vehicles that could have been driven, but would have been further damaged if so driven.
(2) Exclusions.
(i) Damage which can be remedied temporarily at the scene of the accident without special tools or parts.
(ii) Tire disablement without other damage even if no spare tire is available.
(iii) Headlamp or taillight damage.
(iv) Damage to turn signals, horn, or windshield wipers which makes them inoperative.
Driveaway-towaway Operation — Means an operation in which an empty or unladen motor vehicle with one or more sets of wheels on the surface of the roadway is being transported:
(1) Between vehicle manufacturer's facilities;
(2) Between a vehicle manufacturer and a dealership or purchaser;
(3) Between a dealership, or other entity selling or leasing the vehicle, and a purchaser or lessee;
(4) To a motor carrier's terminal or repair facility for the repair of disabling damage (as defined in §390.5) following a crash; or
(5) To a motor carrier's terminal or repair facility for repairs associated with the failure of a vehicle component or system; or
(6) By means of a saddle-mount or tow-bar.
Driver — means any person who operates any commercial motor vehicle.
Driving a Commercial Motor Vehicle While Under the Influence of Alcohol — Means committing any one or more of the following acts in a CMV: Driving a CMV while the person's alcohol concentration is 0.04 or more; driving under the influence of alcohol, as prescribed by State law; or refusal to undergo such testing as is required by any State or jurisdiction in the enforcement of Table 1 to §383.51 or §392.5(a)(2) of this subchapter.
Emergency — Means any hurricane, tornado, storm (e.g. thunderstorm, snowstorm, icestorm, blizzard, sandstorm, etc.), high water, wind-driven water, tidal wave, tsunami, earthquake, volcanic eruption, mud slide, drought, forest fire, explosion, blackout or other occurrence, natural or man-made, which interrupts the delivery of essential services (such as, electricity, medical care, sewer, water, telecommunications, and telecommunication transmissions) or essential supplies (such as, food and fuel) or otherwise immediately threatens human life or public welfare, provided such hurricane, tornado or other event results in:
(1) A declaration of an emergency by the President of the United States, the Governor of a State, or their authorized representatives having authority to declare emergencies; by the FMCSA Field Administrator for the geographical area in which the occurrence happens; or by other Federal, State or local government officials having authority to declare emergencies; or
(2) A request by a police officer for tow trucks to move wrecked or disabled motor vehicles.
Emergency Condition Requiring Immediate Response — Means any condition that, if left unattended, is reasonably likely to result in immediate serious bodily harm, death, or substantial damage to property. In the case of transportation of propane winter heating fuel, such conditions shall include (but are not limited to) the detection of gas odor, the activation of carbon monoxide alarms, the detection of carbon monoxide poisoning, and any real or suspected damage to a propane gas system following a severe storm or flooding. An "emergency condition requiring immediate response" does not include requests to refill empty gas tanks. In the case of a pipeline emergency, such conditions include (but are not limited to) indication of an abnormal pressure event, leak, release or rupture.
Emergency Relief — Means an operation in which a motor carrier or driver of a commercial motor vehicle is providing direct assistance to supplement State and local efforts and capabilities to save lives or property or to protect public health and safety as a result of an emergency as defined in this section.
Employee — Means any individual, other than an employer, who is employed by an employer and who in the course of his or her employment directly affects commercial motor vehicle safety. Such term includes a driver of a commercial motor vehicle (including an independent contractor while in the course of operating a commercial motor vehicle), a mechanic, and a freight handler. Such term does not include an employee of the United States, any State, any political subdivision of a State, or any agency established under a compact between States and approved by the Congress of the United States who is acting within the course of such employment.
Employer — Means any person engaged in a business affecting interstate commerce who owns or leases a commercial motor vehicle in connection with that business, or assigns employees to operate it, but such term does not include the United States, any state, any political subdivision of a State, or an agency established under a compact between States approved by the Congress of the United States.
Exempt Intracity Zone — Means the geographic area of a municipality or the commercial zone of that municipality described in Appendix F to Subchapter B of this Chapter. The term "exempt intracity zone" does not include any municipality or commercial zone in the State of Hawaii. For purposes of §391.62 , a driver may be considered to operate a commercial motor vehicle wholly within an exempt intracity zone notwithstanding any common control, management, or arrangement for a continuous carriage or shipment to or from a point without such zone.
Exempt Motor Carrier — Means a person engaged in transportation exempt from economic regulation by the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) under 49 U.S.C. 13506, "Exempt motor carriers" are subject to the safety regulations set forth in this subchapter.
Farm Vehicle Driver — Means a person who drives only a commercial motor vehicle that is —
(a) Controlled and operated by a farmer as a private motor carrier of property;
(b) Being used to transport either —
(1) Agricultural products, or
(2) Farm machinery, farm supplies, or both, to or from a farm;
(c) Not being used in the operation of a for-hire motor carrier;
(d) Not carrying hazardous materials of a type or quantity that requires the commercial motor vehicle to be placarded in accordance with §177.823 of this subtitle; and
(e) Being used within 150 air-miles of the farmer's farm.
Farmer — Means any person who operates a farm or is directly involved in the cultivation of land, crops, or livestock which —
(a) Are owned by that person; or
(b) Are under the direct control of that person.
Fatality — Means any injury which results in the death of a person at the time of the motor vehicle accident or within 30 days of the accident.
Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administrator — Means the chief executive of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, an agency within the Department of Transportation.
For-hire Motor Carrier — Means a person engaged in the transportation of goods or passengers for compensation.
Gross Combination Weight Rating (GCWR) — Means the value specified by the manufacturer as the loaded weight of a combination (articulated) motor vehicle. In the absence of a value specified by the manufacturer, GCWR will be determined by adding the GVWR of the power unit and the total weight of the towed unit and any load thereon.
Gross Vehicle Weight Rating (GVWR) — Means the value specified by the manufacturer as the loaded weight of a single motor vehicle.
Hazardous Material — Means a substance or material which has been determined by the Secretary of Transportation to be capable of posing an unreasonable risk to health, safety, and property when transported in commerce, and which has been so designated.
Hazardous Substance — Means a material, and its mixtures or solutions, that is identified in the appendix to §172.101 , List of Hazardous Substances and Reportable Quantities, of this title when offered for transportation in one package, or in one transport motor vehicle if not packaged, and when the quantity of the material therein equals or exceeds the reportable quantity (RQ). This definition does not apply to petroleum products that are lubricants or fuels, or to mixtures or solutions of hazardous substances if in a concentration less than that shown in the table in §171.8 of this title, based on the reportable quantity (RQ) specified for the materials listed in the appendix to §172.101.
Hazardous Waste — Means any material that is subject to the hazardous waste manifest requirements of the EPA specified in 40 CFR Part 262 or would be subject to these requirements absent an interim authorization to a State under 40 CFR Part 123, Subpart F.
Highway — Means any road, street, or way, whether on public or private property, open to public travel. "Open to public travel" means that the road section is available, except during scheduled periods, extreme weather or emergency conditions, passable by four-wheel standard passenger cars, and open to the general public for use without restrictive gates, prohibitive signs, or regulation other than restrictions based on size, weight, or class of registration. Toll plazas of public toll roads are not considered restrictive gates.
[Change Notice]
[New Text]
Interstate Commerce — Means trade, traffic, or transportation in the United States —
(1) Between a place in a State and a place outside of such State (including a place outside of the United States);
(2) Between two places in a State through another State or a place outside of the United States; or
(3) Between two places in a State as part of trade, traffic, or transportation originating or terminating outside the State or the United States.
Intrastate Commerce — Means any trade, traffic, or transportation in any State which is not described in the term "interstate commerce."
Medical Examiner — Means a person who is licensed, certified, and/or registered, in accordance with applicable State laws and regulations, to perform physical examinations. The term includes, but is not limited to, doctors of medicine, doctors of osteopathy, physician assistants, advanced practice nurses, and doctors of chiropractic.
Medical Variance — Means a driver has received one of the following from FMCSA that allows the driver to be issued a medical certificate:
(1) An exemption letter permitting operation of a commercial motor vehicle pursuant to part 381, subpart C, of this chapter or §391.64 of this chapter;
(2) A skill performance evaluation certificate permitting operation of a commercial motor vehicle pursuant to §391.49 of this chapter.
[Change Notice]
Motor Carrier — Means a for-hire motor carrier or a private motor carrier. The term includes a motor carrier's agents, officers and representatives as well as employees responsible for hiring, supervising, training, assigning, or dispatching of drivers and employees concerned with the installation, inspection, and maintenance of motor vehicle equipment and/or accessories. For purposes of subchapter B, this definition includes the terms employer and exempt motor carrier.
Motor Vehicle — Means any vehicle, machine, tractor, trailer, or semitrailer propelled or drawn by mechanical power and used upon the highways in the transportation of passengers or property, or any combination thereof determined by the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, but does not include any vehicle, locomotive, or car operated exclusively on a rail or rails, or a trolley bus operated by electric power derived from a fixed overhead wire, furnishing local passenger transportation similar to street-railway service.
Motor Vehicle Record — Means the report of the driving status and history of a driver generated from the driver record, provided to users, such as, drivers or employers, and subject to the provisions of the Driver Privacy Protection Act, 18 U.S.C. 2721-2725. [Change Notice]
Multiple-employer Driver — Means a driver, who in any period of 7 consecutive days, is employed or used as a driver by more than one motor carrier.
Operating Authority — Means the registration required by 49 U.S.C. 13902, 49 CFR part 365 , 49 CFR part 368 , and 49 CFR 392.9a.
Operator — See driver.
Other Terms — Any other term used in this subchapter is used in its commonly accepted meaning, except where such other term has been defined elsewhere in this subchapter. In that event, the definition therein given shall apply.
Out-of-service Order — Means a declaration by an authorized enforcement officer of a Federal, State, Canadian, Mexican, or local jurisdiction that a driver, a commercial motor vehicle, or a motor carrier operation is out of service pursuant to 49 CFR 386.72 , 392.5 , 392.9a , 395.13 , or 396.9 , or compatible laws, or the North American Standard Out-of-Service Criteria.
Person — Means any individual, partnership, association, corporation, business trust, or any other organized group of individuals.
Previous Employer — Means any DOT regulated person who employed the driver in the preceding 3 years, including any possible current employer.
Principal Place of Business — Means the single location designated by the motor carrier, normally its headquarters, for purposes of identification under this subchapter. The motor carrier must make records required by parts 382 , 387 , 390 , 391 , 395 , 396 , and 397 of this subchapter available for inspection at this location within 48 hours (Saturdays, Sundays, and Federal holidays excluded) after a request has been made by a special agent or authorized representative of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration.
Private Motor Carrier — Means a person who provides transportation of property or passengers, by commercial motor vehicle, and is not a for-hire motor carrier.
Private Motor Carrier of Passengers (Business) — Means a private motor carrier engaged in the interstate transportation of passengers which is provided in the furtherance of a commercial enterprise and is not available to the public at large.
Private Motor Carrier of Passengers (Nonbusiness) — Means private motor carrier involved in the interstate transportation of passengers that does not otherwise meet the definition of a private motor carrier of passengers (business).
Radar Detector — Means any device or mechanism to detect the emission of radio microwaves, laser beams or any other future speed measurement technology employed by enforcement personnel to measure the speed of commercial motor vehicles upon public roads and highways for enforcement purposes. Excluded from this definition are radar detection devices that meet both of the following requirements:
(1) Transported outside the driver's compartment of the commercial motor vehicle. For this purpose, the driver's compartment of a passenger-carrying CMV shall include all space designed to accommodate both the driver and the passengers; and
(2) Completely inaccessible to, inoperable by, and imperceptible to the driver while operating the commercial motor vehicle.
Regional Director of Motor Carriers — Means the Regional Field Administrator, for a given geographical area of the United States.
Residential District — Means the territory adjacent to and including a highway which is not a business district and for a distance of 300 feet or more along the highway is primarily improved with residences.
School Bus — Means a passenger motor vehicle which is designed or used to carry more than 10 passengers in addition to the driver, and which the Secretary determines is likely to be significantly used for the purpose of transporting preprimary, primary, or secondary school students to such schools from home or from such schools to home.
School Bus Operation — Means the use of a school bus to transport only school children and/or school personnel from home to school and from school to home.
Secretary — Means the Secretary of Transportation.
Single-employer Driver — Means a driver who, in any period of 7 consecutive days, is employed or used as a driver solely by a single motor carrier. This term includes a driver who operates a commercial motor vehicle on an intermittent, casual, or occasional basis.
Special Agent — See Appendix B to Subchapter B—Special agents.
State — Means a State of the United States and the District of Columbia and includes a political subdivision of a State.
Trailer — Includes:
(a) Full Trailer means any motor vehicle other than a pole trailer which is designed to be drawn by another motor vehicle and so constructed that no part of its weight, except for the towing device, rests upon the self-propelled towing motor vehicle. A semitrailer equipped with an auxiliary front axle (converter dolly) shall be considered a full trailer.
(b) Pole Trailer means any motor vehicle which is designed to be drawn by another motor vehicle and attached to the towing motor vehicle by means of a "reach" or "pole," or by being "boomed" or otherwise secured to the towing motor vehicle, for transporting long or irregularly shaped loads such as poles, pipes, or structural members, which generally are capable of sustaining themselves as beams between the supporting connections.
(c) Semitrailer means any motor vehicle, other than a pole trailer, which is designed to be drawn by another motor vehicle and is constructed so that some part of its weight rests upon the self-propelled towing motor vehicle.
Truck — Means any self-propelled commercial motor vehicle except a truck tractor, designed and/or used for the transportation of property.
Truck Tractor — Means a self-propelled commercial motor vehicle designed and/or used primarily for drawing other vehicles.
United States — Means the 50 States and the District of Columbia.

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